Evaluating the Use of Uncertainty Visualisations for Imputations of Data Missing At Random in Scatterplots

Abhraneel Sarma, Shunan Guo, Jane Hoffswell, Ryan Rossi, Fan Du, Eunyee Koh, Matthew Kay

View presentation: 2022-10-19T20:57:00Z GMT-0600 Change your timezone on the schedule page
2022-10-19T20:57:00Z
Exemplar figure, described by caption below
Datasets can often have missing values (A). Not accounting for missing values of a dataset can lead to incorrect conclusions (B). For example, the figure on the middle-left shows how the trend line can vary when considering only observed data compared to the actual ground truth trend line (which is unknowable). However, imputing missing values can provide the necessary information required for correct inference (C), as the estimate with the imputed dataset is close to the ground truth estimate. In this study, we explore how different ways of representing imputations of a dataset with missing values (D) impact analysts performance on two visual analysis tasks (E)?

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Abstract

Most real-world datasets contain missing values yet most exploratory data analysis (EDA) systems only support visualising data points with complete cases. This omission may potentially lead the user to biased analyses and insights. Imputation techniques can help estimate the value of a missing data point, but introduces additional uncertainty. In this work, we investigate the effects of visualising imputed values in charts using different ways of representing data imputations and imputation uncertainty—no imputation, mean, 95% confidence intervals, probability density plots, gradient intervals, and hypothetical outcome plots. We focus on scatterplots, which is a commonly used chart type, and conduct a crowdsourced study with 202 participants. We measure users’ bias and precision in performing two tasks—estimating average and detecting trend—and their self-reported confidence in performing these tasks. Our results suggest that, when estimating averages, uncertainty representations may reduce bias but at the cost of decreasing precision. When estimating trend, only hypothetical outcome plots may lead to a small probability of reducing bias while increasing precision. Participants in every uncertainty representation were less certain about their response when compared to the baseline. The findings point towards potential trade-offs in using uncertainty encodings for datasets with a large number of missing values. This paper and the associated analysis materials are available at: https://osf.io/q4y5r/